Monday, August 3
How to Land preparation for rice
AGRICULTURE

How to Land preparation for rice

First ploughing The land was ploughed to a depth of 8 – 10 inches using Sinhalese plough, mould board, disk plough or mamoties.The hard pan was destroyed to a certain extent not totally and mixed with upper soil.Cattle manure and goat manure were added to improve the soil fertility. Second ploughing Practiced 10 – 14 days after the first.Rotavator and Sinhalese plough were used. Land Leveling Reshaping stiles Mamoties and mud from the field were use.There was adequate and proper control of water.Weeds were removed. Land leveling and preparation for sowing After good decomposition of organic matter the land was leveled for seed bed preparation.The water sources were established around the center of the field.For transplant rough seed beds were prepared. S...
Rice – Irrigation management, Weed management, Harvesting, Pest and Diseases
AGRICULTURE

Rice – Irrigation management, Weed management, Harvesting, Pest and Diseases

Irrigation management Standing water management is a misconception. It helps for weed management. Water table should be maintained at field capacity. 2 – 3 inches throughout period of growth from 3 – 4 days after transplanting is important. Mid-season drainage is important for soil aeration. Moisture requirement is critical during the period of panicle initiation to maturity. Complete drainage is necessary after milk stage for grain maturity. Weed management Commence around 2 weeks after planting and continuous up to 5 – 8 weeks by using manual, cultural, mechanical, chemical and integrated methods. First 30 days are important. Can reduce the yield by competition. Harvesting Post-harvest loss is 10 – 15%. Harvest when spikelet are yellow in color, not the leaves. Can be...
MAIZE (Zea mays) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements
AGRICULTURE

MAIZE (Zea mays) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements

Introduction Maize is one of the most important coarse grain and a major field crop fulfill food requirements in Sri Lanka. It has around 30 000 ha of land area devoted annually. It accompanies second highest extent of land next to rice. Our annual maize requirement is about 200 000 Mt. Climatic and soil requirements Deep, loamy, fertile soils, rich in organic matter, pH range 5.3 – 6.3 are preferred for satisfactory growth.Well drained soils with adequate moisture supply are required.Maize is grown as rain fed and irrigated. Maha – latter part of September and October. Yala – beginning of April, but farmer practice at later part of April. They can be planted in Maha similarly, as with other major crops that need 3 months to mature and a longer rainy season for unint...
Rice (Oryza sativa) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Categories
AGRICULTURE

Rice (Oryza sativa) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Categories

Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka, cultivated since known time. Sri Lanka primary form of agriculture is rice production. Rice is cultivated during Maha and Yala seasons. And also it is the major field crop in here. We are almost self-sufficient in rice with the evolution of fertilizer responsive rice varieties but not sustaining.  Climatic and soil requirements Rice can be cultivated up to sea level 3000 m in both temperate and tropical regions.Temperature range 15 – 20 0C to humid tropics and 35 0C to sub tropics are more suitable for better production.Well distributed rain fall is needed. Also it can be cultivated in wide range of clay and loamy clay soil with pH 4.5 – 7.5. Categories of rice According to water level UplandLowlandSubmergedDeep water...
PERL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Spacing, Irrigation,Weed management, Pests and diseases
AGRICULTURE

PERL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Spacing, Irrigation,Weed management, Pests and diseases

Introduction Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It has been grown in Indian subcontinent and Africa the since prehistoric times. Today pearl millet is grown on over 260,000 km2 of land worldwide. It accounts for approximately 50% of the total world production of millets. Climatic and soil requirements Pearl millet is well adapted to growing areas characterized by drought, low soil fertility, and high temperature. It performs well in soils with high salinity or low pH. Recommended varieties No specific recommended varieties. Spacing 45 cm x 15 cm Irrigation After seeding in every 4 – 5 days until seedlings are established. Irrigate weekly interval during the dry period. Weed management Hand weeding should be practiced. ...
FOXTAIL MILLET / THANA HAL (Setaria italica) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Spacing, Seed rate
AGRICULTURE

FOXTAIL MILLET / THANA HAL (Setaria italica) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Spacing, Seed rate

Introduction Foxtail millets are used in indigenous medicine. Foxtail millet is specially used in snake poisoning. New improved varieties are more suitable for both food and feed purposes. This crop take over three months to mature and have yield potentials of over three tons per hectare. This crop is known as the crop of the poorest of the poor. Climatic and soil requirements Grown well during Maha season. Yala season cultivation is possible with irrigation facilities. Deep, loamy, fertile soils rich in organic matter are preferred for satisfactory growth. Well drained soils. Recommended varieties ISC 480 Spacing 13 cm x 7.5 cm Seed rate Row seeding :-  7 – 9 kg/haBroadcasting :- 11 – 13 kg/ha Don't Ignore SHARE this ! - Scroll down for Comments and...
COMMEN MILLET / MENERI (Panicum miliaccum) Irrigation, Weed management, Harvesting, Potential yield, Pests and disease
AGRICULTURE

COMMEN MILLET / MENERI (Panicum miliaccum) Irrigation, Weed management, Harvesting, Potential yield, Pests and disease

Irrigation During dry periods, irrigations are required every 4 – 7 days depending on the severity of the drought and type of soil. Weed management Weeds could be controlled by manual methods such as weeding and application pre and post emergent weed killers. Crops need to be maintained weed free at least until flowering stage. Harvesting Harvest when 80% of panicle turns in to yellow color. Crops are harvested, shelled and cleaned manually when grain moisture is low and after physiological maturity is reached. Seed moisture is lowered by sun drying to a safer level before shelling the seeds. Potential yield Irrigated – 1350 kg/ haRain fed – 450 kg/ha Pests and diseases Common millets are less affected by diseases. Don't Ignore SHARE this ! - Scroll down ...
FOXTAIL MILLET / THANA HAL (Setaria italica) Irrigation, Weed management, Harvesting, Potential yield, Pests and diseases
AGRICULTURE

FOXTAIL MILLET / THANA HAL (Setaria italica) Irrigation, Weed management, Harvesting, Potential yield, Pests and diseases

Irrigation After seeding in every 4 – 5 days until seedlings are established. Irrigate weekly interval during the dry period. Weed management Weed free environment is needed for 45 days to develop vigorous plant. Seedlings in rows facilitate weed control.  Harvesting Harvest is done when 80% of the panicles become brown color. Potential yield Irrigated – 2100 kg/ haRain fed – 1150 kg/ha Pests and diseases Pests Stem borer SHARE this with your friends by clicking below!
Nursery and Establishment of RICE (Oryza sativa)
AGRICULTURE

Nursery and Establishment of RICE (Oryza sativa)

Methods of establishment Broadcasting / parachuteRow sowingTransplanting (row and random) Incubation of soaked seeds Seeds were separated from water. Banana leaves were layered on the selected place and seeds were layered about 4 – 5 inches of layer on the leaves. Then seed heap was covered with banana leaves and it is weighed. Nursery establishment Wet bedDry bedModified dapogDapog (mat)Bubble tray Modified wet bed Modified dapog Polythene was layer on the paddy land and then mud layer on the polythene.Mud layer was evenly distributed. Incubated seeds were evenly distributed in the mud. Dapog Wet bed nursery High numbers of seeds were broadcasted on ploughed and narrowed paddy land. Bubble tray Bubble tray About 25 bubble trays were u...
BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris)
AGRICULTURE

BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Introduction Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family. Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) which are used for human or animal food. Climatic and soil requirements High temperature and high rainfall are not suitable. Temperature should be lower than 300C at the flowering stage. Bean can be grown on sandy loam soil. Soil pH range is 6.5 – 7.5. Water logging condition and clay soil are not suitable. Red yellow podsolic soil is suitable. Recommended varieties Pole bean type Kenchuky wander green (KWG) – Green color, medium size, curved end pods.Kenchuky wander waxPees butterKatugasthotaLanka nil Bush bean type Wade      – Dark green, round, fleshy and medium size podsTop crop – Light green, round, fibrous and m...