Wednesday, October 21

AGRICULTURE

Feel the flavor of love (Cocoa Production)
AGRICULTURE, HEALTHY-FOODS

Feel the flavor of love (Cocoa Production)

Cocoa Production Chocolate is the most popular sweet treat in the world. People around the world (but mostly in Europe and the United States) consume more than 3 million tons of cocoa beans a year, according to the World Cocoa Foundation. And, not only does eating chocolate make you feel good, it may also be good for your heart and your brain. Cocoa is the key ingredient in chocolate and chocolate confections. What is this cocoa..? The Latin name for cocoa is Theobroma literally means food of the gods. When consider the history cocoa played an important role in many ancient South American culture. The Olmecs (1500-400 BC) were the first humans to consume chocolate, originally in the form of a drink. They crushed the cocoa beans, mixed them with water and added spices, chilies...
COMMEN MILLET / MENERI (Panicum miliaccum) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Spacing, Seed rate
AGRICULTURE

COMMEN MILLET / MENERI (Panicum miliaccum) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Spacing, Seed rate

Introduction Common millets, otherwise known as Meneri consist of two grain sizes. Smaller type, the little millets normally lack uniformity in maturity and are capable of giving grain yields up to 4 tons in about 60 days. They are especially suitable for growing in Yala season with the onset of the rains. Climatic and soil requirements Common millet can be grown successfully during Maha season on up lands of four agro-ecological zones. DL1, DL2, IL2 and IM2 if rainfall is adequate. Can be grown in well drained soils. Silt loam are the most desirable and in addition red yellow latesols and rego soils. Recommended varieties MS 1491AS 254V 62 Spacing 30 cm x 10 cm Seed rate Row seeding :- 7 – 9 kg/haBroadcasting :- 11 – 13 kg/ha Don't Ignore ...
SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor) – Irrigation, Weed management, Harvesting, Pests and diseases
AGRICULTURE

SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor) – Irrigation, Weed management, Harvesting, Pests and diseases

Irrigation During dry periods irrigation is required in every 4-7 days depending on severity of the drought and type of soil. Weed management Weeds could be controlled by manual methods such as weeding and application pre and post emergent weed killers. Crops need to be maintained weed free at least until flowering stage. Harvesting Crops are harvested, shelled and cleaned manually when grain moisture is low and after physiological maturity is reached. Seed moisture is lowered by sun drying to a safer level before shelling the seeds. Pests and diseases Pests Stem borerParrot Diseases Root & stalk rotLeaf blightSheath blight Don't Ignore SHARE this ! - Scroll down for Comments and Related Articles !
SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Land preparation, Seed rate, Spacing
AGRICULTURE

SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements, Recommended varieties, Land preparation, Seed rate, Spacing

Introduction Sorghum is a contender to maize in the provender industry, which dependent up on the grain price in the world market. The International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in India has developed germplasm which are highly suitable for both food and feed purposes. Poor demand arising from more popularity of other major cereals and high bird damage are the main reasons for less popularity of the crop when both quality and yield are superior in newly improved varieties. Climatic and soil requirements Tropical and sub-tropical crop. Arid and semi-arid zones 80F temperature. During drought it remains dormant. Rainfall 15-20 inches. Wind is bad. Deep loamy soil, fertile soil rich in organic matter. Well drain soils with adequate moisture supply ...
Finger Millet- Irrigation management,Weed management, Harvesting, Post-harvest technologies and food technologies,Pest and diseases
AGRICULTURE

Finger Millet- Irrigation management,Weed management, Harvesting, Post-harvest technologies and food technologies,Pest and diseases

Irrigation management After transplanting the seedlings, it is necessary to irrigate the field once in every 4 – 5 days until seedlings are established. During dry period supplementary irrigation should be provided at weekly intervals. Weed management Millet seedlings are slow growing and require a weed free environment for 45 days to develop vigorous plants. Row seeding facilitates weed control. Harvesting Crops are harvested, shelled and cleaned manually when grain moisture is low and after physiological maturity is reached. Seed moisture is lowered by sun drying to a safer level before shelling the seeds. Post-harvest technologies and food technologies As post-harvest facilities are yet develop, except seed that need special attention and storage conditions, co...
Finger Millet- Seed rate, Spacing,Land preparation
AGRICULTURE

Finger Millet- Seed rate, Spacing,Land preparation

Seed Rate Broadcasting  :- 6 – 8 kg/haRow seeding   :- 3 – 4 kg/haTransplanting :- 2 – 3 kg/ha Spacing Broadcasting: – Millets are commonly sown by broadcasting.Row seeding   : – Sow seeds thinly in rows 30 cm apart for final spacing of one plant every 10 – 15 cm.Transplanting: – 20 – 25 days old seedlings can be transplanted in rows 30 cm apart for a final spacing of one plant every 10 – 15 cm. Land preparation The land was deeply ploughed and tilled finely. Then broadcasting and row seeding were practiced. Millets are traditionally grown on newly cleared chena during Maha season and are usually planted without land preparation. Higher yields can be obtained in cultivated fields if the soil is worked to a fine tilth with a disk harrow or mammot...
FINGER MILLET (Eleucine coracana) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements
AGRICULTURE

FINGER MILLET (Eleucine coracana) Introduction, Climatic and soil requirements

Introduction Finger millet also knows a grain crop next to rice and maize in Sri Lanka.This is a hardy popular food and wonder is valued as staple food. It is also known as dry land crop cultivated in both tropical and sub-tropical regions and mainly cultivated in dry zone. The seeds, which may be white, light brown, or dark brown, are consumed in a variety of forms including as unleavened bread made from milled flour. Various types of porridge and alcoholic beverages are also prepared from the seeds.    Climatic and soil requirements Finger millet is an important crop grown in rain fed uplands in the Dry zone and Intermediate zone. Finger millet grows well in all well – drained soils, but silt loams are the most desirable. It grows well on reddish brown earth,...
MAIZE – Irrigation management,Weed management, Harvesting, Post-harvest technologies and food technologies, Pest and diseases
AGRICULTURE

MAIZE – Irrigation management,Weed management, Harvesting, Post-harvest technologies and food technologies, Pest and diseases

Irrigation management With 4 days interval. It is important till flowering, because to get good harvest. It is essential up to 46 weeks. During dry periods, irrigations are required every 4 – 7 days depending on the severity of the drought and type of soil. Weed management Weeds could be controlled by manual methods such as weeding and application pre and post emergent weed killers. Crops need to be maintained weed free at least until flowering stage. Harvesting Harvest as row corn or totally dried. Row corn we can harvest after 70 – 75 days. Correct maturity stage is, when the tussle become black in color. Crops are harvested shelled and clean manually when grain moisture is low and after physiological maturity is reached. Seed moisture is lowered by sun drying to a sa...
How to Land preparation for rice
AGRICULTURE

How to Land preparation for rice

First ploughing The land was ploughed to a depth of 8 – 10 inches using Sinhalese plough, mould board, disk plough or mamoties.The hard pan was destroyed to a certain extent not totally and mixed with upper soil.Cattle manure and goat manure were added to improve the soil fertility. Second ploughing Practiced 10 – 14 days after the first.Rotavator and Sinhalese plough were used. Land Leveling Reshaping stiles Mamoties and mud from the field were use.There was adequate and proper control of water.Weeds were removed. Land leveling and preparation for sowing After good decomposition of organic matter the land was leveled for seed bed preparation.The water sources were established around the center of the field.For transplant rough seed beds were prepared. S...
Rice – Irrigation management, Weed management, Harvesting, Pest and Diseases
AGRICULTURE

Rice – Irrigation management, Weed management, Harvesting, Pest and Diseases

Irrigation management Standing water management is a misconception. It helps for weed management. Water table should be maintained at field capacity. 2 – 3 inches throughout period of growth from 3 – 4 days after transplanting is important. Mid-season drainage is important for soil aeration. Moisture requirement is critical during the period of panicle initiation to maturity. Complete drainage is necessary after milk stage for grain maturity. Weed management Commence around 2 weeks after planting and continuous up to 5 – 8 weeks by using manual, cultural, mechanical, chemical and integrated methods. First 30 days are important. Can reduce the yield by competition. Harvesting Post-harvest loss is 10 – 15%. Harvest when spikelet are yellow in color, not the leaves. Can be...